Q. What is Embedded System?
Ans: A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. In many cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as in the case of an antilock braking system in a car.

Q. What is a stored program computer?
Ans: In a stored program computer, programs are represented in a form suitable for storing in memory alongside the data. The computer gets its instructions by reading them from memory, and a program can be set or altered by setting the values of a portion of memory.

Q. What are the four main components of any general-purpose computer?
Ans: A main memory, which stores both data and instructions: an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) capable of operating on binary data; a control unit, which interprets the instructions in memory and causes them to be executed; and input and output (I/O) equipment operated by the control unit.

Q. At the integrated circuit level, what are the three principal constituents of a computer system?
Ans: Gates, memory cells, and interconnections among gates and memory cells.

Q. Explain Moore’s law.
Ans: Moore observed that the number of transistors that could be put on a single chip was doubling every year and correctly predicted that this pace would continue into the near future.

Q. List and explain the key characteristics of a computer family.
Ans: Similar or identical instruction set: In many cases, the same set of machine instructions is supported on all members of the family. Thus, a program that executes on one machine will also execute on any other. Similar or identical operating system: The same basic operating system is available for all family members. Increasing speed: The rate of instruction execution increases in going from lower to higher family members. Increasing Number of I/O ports: In going from lower to higher family members. Increasing memory size: In going from lower to higher family members. Increasing cost: In going from lower to higher family members.

Q. What is the key distinguishing feature of a microprocessor?
Ans: In a microprocessor, all of the components of the CPU are on a single chip.